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Illusions

When I look back I see that all kinds of illusions have attracted my interest, visual ones at the top. The oldest were still in my memory, later I started to collect them, drawings, photocopies… I have many books on this subject. My wife appreciated the ones about Escher and Vasarely as much as I did before their names were heard in our country. After the appearance of Internet access to theoretical studies as well as visual material became much easier. Would you be very surprised if I tell you that I have collected some 50 000 (in words: fifty thousand) pictures about them?

What are visual illusions? In short they are images that deceive our perceptions. I must have been inclined for deceptions, I am enjoying them since the times I remember. This continues even today.

In this connection I must mention ambigrams, which have similarities with visual illusions. Ambigrams are calligraphic creations that are multi visual. Those who create ambigrams arrange the letters of a word in such a way that it can be read, for example, when it is turned upside down. There are some other kinds of ambigrams too. I have occupied myself with them for quite a long time. I have made around 10 000 (in words: ten thousand) ambigrammic word arrangements, most of which in Turkish language. Some of them can be seen in the pages carrying the title ambigrams. My notes about them reached the size of a book.

To come back to visual illusions, later I discovered that theoretical and academical studies about them were also as interesting as themselves. It is not easy to explain what I have learned through them. It is a vast area, open to scientific research as well as artistic creations. It can develop manual skills too. Besides all these, visual illusions never use their surprising and entertaining properties. Through them one can discover more about the external world as well as himself. In short, they are a rare mixture of many properties.

From time to time I found the possibility to share my enthusiasm and knowledge about them. Some of my articles about them were published. Last one was an elective course during my associate professorship in Faculty of Architecture at the Eastern Mediterranean University in Cyprus. The interest shown to it and the following exhibition of their assignments by my students (including my daughter), and the support of some of my colleagues, who contributed to this course as guest lecturers, encouraged me to revise my notes, observations and thoughts about them and put them together in form of a book.

Since my self retirement I am working on it. It has become quite an extensive study. Before I offered the above mentioned elective course I was skeptical if the subject would fill a semester. After I started with the book I saw what kind of mountain I was trying to climb – a mountain hard to climb but also very enjoyable…

With the help of my daughter I prepared the drawings, photographs, photomontages that are going to be in the book, which also gave me the opportunity to test many of the visual illusions once again. And they never failed to surprise me. If one day this study finds publication it is going to the first extensive book on this subject in Turkish language.

I do not know if I can put all of it on these pages one day. More than 99 000 (in words: ninty nine thousand) words, written in Times New Roman 10 font on some 365 (in words: three hundred sixty five) pages, some 2 000 (in words: two thousand) pictures… it is not easy. The reason why I am mentioning all these here is to announce that I am ready to establish contact with those who are interested in visual illusions. I also think I may add some of the visual material we have prepared here. For the time being I am adding the contents page here, thinking that the headings would give a rough idea about the study. Since the book is in Turkish this is a translation. I am also adding the sources I have used for those who may show an interest to visual illusions.

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The section about the sources of my book on visual illusions:

Books and articles

• Josef Albers, Interaction of Color, New Haven / London, 1975 (1963)
• Hugh Aldersey-Williams, Zoomorphic – New Animal Architecture, London, 2003
• Ali Alparslan, Osmanlı Hat Sanatı Tarihi, Yapı Kredi Yayınları 1268, İstanbul, 2004 (1999)
• Üstün Alsaç, Anastas Mum Satsana, Anagramlar, palindromlar ile başka dil ve sözcük oyunları üstüne denemeler, İstanbul, 1992
• Üstün Alsaç, Türk Resim ve Yontu Sanatı, (Birsen Alsaç’la birlikte), İstanbul, 1993
• Üstün Alsaç, Türkiye’de Karikatür, Çizgi Roman, Çizgi Film, İstanbul, 1994
• Üstün Alsaç, Theoretical Observations on Architecture (Mimarlık Üstüne Kuramsal Gözlemler), Gazimağusa, 1997
• Üstün Alsaç, “..Tanrım, gözlerime inanamıyorum..”, Cumhuriyet Bilim Teknik, sayı 580, İstanbul, 1998
• Üstün Alsaç, “Optical Illusions in Architecture”, ARCH*EMED (Doğu Akdeniz Üniversitesi, Mimarlık Fakültesi dergisi), sayı 2, Gazimağusa, 1998
• Üstün Alsaç, Türk Karikatür Kaynakçası ve Zaman Dizini, Ankara, 1999
• Üstün Alsaç, “Bakışık Sözcükler”, Bilim ve Teknik, sayı 392, Ankara, 2000
• Üstün Alsaç, Need to Dream – Gazimağusa Utopias (Düş kurma gereği – Gazimağusa ütopyaları), Gazimağusa, 2004
• Üstün Alsaç, Ambigramlar, Ankara, 2008 (Yayınlanmamış deneme)
• Selçuk Alsan, Düşünme Kutusu, Düşünme Kutusu II, Ankara, 1990, 1991
• Selçuk Alsan, Düşünme Kulesi, İstanbul, 1992
• Anonim, Sihirli Geometri, Ankara, basım tarihi belirtilmemiş (1973 ?), Tangramlar konusunda bir kitap
• Anonim, Sihirli Geometri Çözümler, Ankara, basım tarihi belirtilmemiş (1973 ?)
• Anonim, The Calligrapher’s Handbook, London, 1991 (1985)
• Anonim, M. C. Escher – Works of Art, London, 1995
• Anonim, Whizz Kids Crazy Puzzle Book, London, 1982
• Nick Arnold, Dehşet Saçan Işık, İstanbul, 2007 (1999)
• Nick Arnold, Çıldırtan Sesler, İstanbul, 2008 (1998)
• Emin Doğan Aydın, Temel Tasarıma Çağdaş Yaklaşımlar, İstanbul, 2004
• John Berger, Görme biçimleri, 6. basım, İstanbul, 1995
• Roland Berry, Berry’s Book of Cunning Contraptions, Harmondsworth, 1979 (1977)
• J. Richard Block / Harold E. Yuker, Ich sehe was, was Du nicht siehst – 250 Optische Taeuschungen und visuelle Illusionen, Wien / Gütersloh / Stuttgart, 1993 (1989)
• Carolyn M. Bloomer, Principles of Visual Perception, New York, 1976
• Joe Boddy, The Ultimate Hidden Picture Puzzle Book, New York, 1990
• Max Brandel, The MAD book of Word Power, New York, 1973
• Gyles Brandreth, The Big Book of Optical Illusions, London, 1980 (1979)
• Gyles Brandreth, Shadow Shows, London, 1981
• Carol Brown (derleyen), The Cutting Edge, Brighton, 1992
• Dan Brown, Melekler ve Şeytanlar, İstanbul, 2005 (2000)
• David Burnie, Işık, çeviren: İlhami Buğdaycı, Ankara, 2008 (1992)
• Henry Bursill, Hand Shadows to be Thrown upon the Wall, New York, 1967, (1859)
• Henry Bursill, More Hand Shadows to be Thrown upon the Wall, New York, 1971, (1860)
• Serhan Büyükkeçeci, Paradokslar ve Mantık Oyunları, İstanbul, 2007
• Jacques Carelman, Katalog erstaunlicher Dingelinge, Bern, 1970 (Paris, 1969)
• Masahiro Chatani, Pop-up Gift Cards – Origamic Architecture, Tokyo, 1988
• Kemal Cömertoğlu, İllüzyon Sanatı, İstanbul, 2007 (2003)
• Roger H. Clark / Michael Pause, Precedents in Architecture, New York, 1985
• Michael Cox, Akılalmaz Yapılar, çeviren: Selda Göktan, İstanbul, 2000
• Sandro Del-Prete, The Master of Illusions, New York, 2008
• Yıldız Demiriz, İslam Sanatında Geometrik Süsleme, İstanbul, 2000
• Leonard de Vries, The Book of Experiments, London, 1974 (1958)
• Leonard de Vries, The Second Book of Experiments, London, 1973 (1963)
• Leonard de Vries, The Third Book of Experiments, London, 1974 (1965)
• Demir Divanlıoğlu, Temel Tasar – Tasar’ın Öğe ve İlkeleri, İstanbul, 1997
• Emre Çağatay (derleyen), “Guiseppe Arcimboldo”, Adam Sanat, sayı 132, s. 44-47, 1996
• Betty Edwards, The New Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain, London, 2001 (1979)
• Joost Elffers, Tangram – The Ancient Chinese Shapes Game, Harmondsworth, 1976 (1973)
• Joost Elffers / Andreas Landshoff, M. C. Escher Book of Boxes, Köln, 1998
• Selçuk Erdem, Karikatürler-1, İstanbul, 1997
• Bruno Ernst, Optical Illusions, Köln, 1998 (1986)
• M. C. Escher, M. C. Escher – Garifik yapıtları, İstanbul, 2005 (1959)
• M. C. Escher / J. L. Locher, The World of M. C. Escher, New York, 1971
• M. C. Escher, The Graphic Work, Köln, 2008 (1989)
• Omar Faruque, Graphic Communication as a Design Tool, New York, 1984
• Susan Ferris, “Secrets of Anamorphic Art”, Horizon, January 1977, vol. XIX, Nr. 1
• Robert Froman, Seeing Things – How to make words into pictures, London, 1977 (1971)
• Martin Gardner, The Ambidextrous Universe, Harmondsworth, 1967 (1964)
• Martin Gardner, Hah, Buldum, çeviren: Barış Bıçakçı, Ankara 2008 (2006)
• Albertine Gaur, A History of Calligraphy, London, 1994
• Adem Genç / Ahmet Sipahioğlu, Görsel Algılama : Sanatta Yaratıcı Süreç, İzmir, 1990
• E. H. Gombrich, Sanat ve Yanılsama – Resim yoluyla betimlemenin psikolojisi, İstanbul, 1992 1959)
• Nevide Gökaydın, Eğitimde Tasarım ve Görsel Algı, Ankara, 1990
• R. L. Gregory / E. H. Gombrich (editors), Illusion in Nature and Art, London, 1980 (1973)
• Walter Gropius, Architektur – Wege zu einer optischen Kultur, Frankfurt/M-Hamburg, 1959 (1956)
• Latife Gürer / Gül Gürer, Temel Tasarım, İstanbul, 2004
• Sven Hesselgren, The Language of Architecture, Kristianstad, Sweden, 1969
• Heinrich Hoffmann / Ludwig Haymann, Die Olympischen Spiele 1936, Diessen, 1936
• Ensor Holiday, Altair design pad, Longman, 1973
• Michael Holt / Ronald Ridout, The Big Book of Puzzles, Harmondsworth, 1977 (1972)
• Michael Holt / Ronald Ridout, The Second Big Book of Puzzles, Harmondsworth, 1981 (1973)
• Michael Holt / Ronald Ridout, The Big Book of Puzzles, Harmondsworth, 1979
• Linda Holtzschue, Understanding Color, New Jersey, 2006
• Spyros Horemis, Visual Illusions Coloring Book, New York, 1973
• Norman Hunter, Professor Branetawm’s Do-It-Yourself Handbook, Harmondsworth, 1979 (1976)
• Johannes Itten, The Art of Color: the subjective experience and objective rationale of color, New York, 1973
• Ann Jonas, Round Trip, Scholastic Inc., New York, 1983
• Sachin Kalban, “The Ambigrammist”, MidDay (Hindistan’da yayınlanan bir günlük gazete), 25.5.2003
• Hal Kaufman / Bob Schroeter, Hocus-Focus, New York, 1981
• Eric Kenneway, Magic Toys, Tricks and Illusions, London, 1982 (1979)
• Hüseyin Kılıçkan, Tarih Boyunca Bezeme Sanatı ve Örnekleri, İstanbul, 2004 (1979)
• Hüseyin Kılıçkan, Orta Asya’dan Anadolu’ya Türk Bezeme Sanatı ve Örnekleri, İstanbul (2004)
• Scott Kim, Inversions, Petersborough, 1981
• Diane Kimpton, İnanılmaz Özel Efektler, İstanbul, 2007
• Ümit Kireççi, Çizgi Roman Senaryosu – Önce Yazı Sonra Çizgi, İstanbul, 2008
• Werner Kriegeskorte, Guiseppe Arcimboldo 1527-1593, Köln, 1993
• Edi Lanners (editor), Illusions, London, 1977 (Lucerne / Frankfurt M., 1973)
• John Langdon, Wordplay – The Philosophy, Art and Science of Ambigrams, London, 2005 (1992)
• Loriot, Alles Liebe zum Geburtstag, Glarus (İsviçre), basım tarihi belirtilmemiş
• Max Lüscher, The Lüscher Colour Test, London, 1976 (1969)
• Ivan Moscovich, The Big Book of Brain Games, New York, 2006
• Werner Müller / Gunther Vogel, dtv-Atlas zur Baukunst 1, 2, München, 1974-1981
• Ernst Neufert, Bauentwurfslehre, Frankfurt/m-Berlin, 1966 (1936)
• Ernst Neufert, Yapı Tasarımı Bilgisi, İstanbul, 2000
• Ernst R. Norling, Perspective Made Easy, New York, 1999 (1939)
• Colin Ord, Hiç Resim Uçar mı?, (İstanbul ?), 2007
• Selahattin Özpalabıyıklar (yayına hazırlayan), Bir Yazı Sevdalısı – Emin Barın / A Lover of Calligraphy – Emin Barın, İstanbul, 2002
• Burkard Polster, Eye Twisters, Constable & Robinson, U.K., 2007
• Tony Potter, Lettering and Typography, London, 1987
• Roger Price, Des Drudels Kern – Drudel für Anfaenger und Fortgeschrittene, München, 1967
• Roger Price, Droodles, London, 1964 (1959)
• Şevket Rado, Türk Hattatları, İstanbul, basım tarihi belirtilmemiş
• Hans Georg Rauch, En Masse, Hamburg / New York, 1974
• John Adkins Richardson / Floyd W. Coleman / Michael J. Smith, Basic Design – Systems, Elements, Applications, New Jersey, 1984
• Irvin Rock, An Introduction to Perception, New York / London, 1975
• Georg von Ruszkay, Vexierbilder – Bilder, die Raetsel aufgeben, Ravensburg, 1979
• Yurdanur Sakaoğlu, Çocuklara, Gençlere Oyunlar ve Eğlenceler, Ankara, 1980
• Gianni Sarcone / Marie-Jo Weber, New Optical Illusions, London, 2005
• İrfan Sayar, Porof. Zihni Sinir – Proceler, Ankara, 2002
• Al Seckel, The Art of Optical Illusions, Carlton Books, 2000
• Al Seckel, More Optical Illusions, Carlton Books, 2002
• Robert Shaw, Yazı Yazma Tekniği ve Yazı Örnekleri, İnkılap Kitabevi, İstanbul, 1994
• Sabri Esat Siyavuşgil, Karagöz, İstanbul, 1961
• Alexander Sturgis. Magic in Art, London, 1994
• Nuran Şener, Çocuk Elişleri Antolojisi, İstanbul, 1988
• Önder Şenyapılı, Sinema ve Tasarım, İstanbul, 2002
• Nazan Tacer, Origami – Oyuncaklar, İstanbul, 2008 (2007)
• The Diagram Group, Calligraphy, Glasgow, 2001
• Tevfik Fikret Uçar, Görsel İletişim ve Grafik Tasarım, İstanbul, 2004
• Top That Team, Optical Illusions, Suffolk, 2002
• Victor Vasarely, Vasarely, Neuchatel, 1969
• Victor Vasarely, Vasarely II, Neuchatel, 1971
• Gustave Verbeek, Unten ist Oben, Frankfurt/Main, basım tarihi belirtilmemiş

Internet addresses

• http://www.psy.ritsumei.ac.jp/~akitaoka/cataloge.html#anomotion
• http://www.sandlotscience.com/EyeonIllusions/whatisanillusion.htm
• http://www.sandlotscience.com/EyeonIllusions/PersonalFoolery.htm
• http://lite.bu.edu/vision/applets/Motion/Motion/Motion.html
• http://ceyhunaksan.com/subliminal-bilinc-alti-reklam/
• http://www.netpano.com/makale/?makale=207
• http://www.enfal.de/sosyalbilimler/y/007.htm
• http://www.michaelbach.de/ot/index.html
• http://lite.bu.edu/vision/applets/Motion/Motion/Motion.html
• www.richardgregory.org/papers/knowl_illusion/…
• http://www.archimedes-lab.org/pzmoptic_3c.html
• http://www.lhup.edu/~dsimanek/home.htm
• http://www.lhup.edu/~dsimanek/museum/unwork.htm
• http://britton.disted.camosun.bc.ca/home.htm
• http://www.woodcraftarts.com/jacob.htm
• http://www.roadshow.org/activities/explanation.html
• http://lookmind.com/
• http://www.lhup.edu/~dsimanek/3d/illus2.htm
• io.uwinnipeg.ca/…/topology-paper-projects.htm
• http://im-possible.info/english/index.html
• http%://www.archimedes-lab.org/index_optical.html
• http://www.coolopticalillusions.com/illusions/coolprinttriangle.pdf
• http://lite.bu.edu/vision/applets/Motion/Motion/Motion.html
• http://www.mcescher.com/
• haha.nu/creative/the-world-is-in-your-hand/
• www.pbs.org/saf/1105/teaching/teaching3.htm
• http://discovermagazine.com/2006/may/guide3
• www.tricks-and-illusions.com/2007/07/creative…
• http://members.lycos.nl/amazingart/E/index.html
• http://www.sciencenews.org/articles/20070224/mathtrek.asp
• http://www.dartmouth.edu/~matc/math5.pattern/lesson6math.html
• http://www.jimloy.com/puzz/delusion.htm
• http://thinkzone.wlonk.com/ (”Keith’s Think Zone”)
• http://herzogart.com/
• http://www.schoolresult.com/experiments/science_experiments9.htm
• http://randi.org/images/commentary/200607/ames_room.pdfhttp://randi.org/images/commentary/200607/ames_room.pdf
• http://www.psychologie.tu-dresden.de/i1/kaw/diverses%20Material/www.illusionworks.com/html/ames_room.html
• www.kodak.fr/eknec/PageQuerier.jhtml?pq-path=…
• http://mightyillusions.blogspot.com/2006/05/rob-gonsalves-magic-realism-illusions.html
• http://www.jclahr.com/science/Illusions/3d/paper_dragon.html
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gestalt_psychology
• members.tripod.com/~npaulette/fred.htm
• http://www.poeticsoft.com/index.htm
• http://www.ntvmsnbc.com/news/320032.asp (Türkçe)
• http://www.karagoz.net/emin.htm
• http://library.thinkquest.org/J0110336/home.htm
• http://library.thinkquest.org/J0110336/money.htm
• http://magiceye.com/gallery/
• http://www.ilusionario.es/#ini_index#ini_index
• intelligenttravel.typepad.com/…/12/index.html
• http://www.tessellations.org/index.htm
• http://www.cs.technion.ac.il/~gershon/BeyondEscherForReal/
• http://www.lhup.edu/~dsimanek/scenario/toytrick.htm
• http://www.nedirnedemek.com/nedir/araclar/tersten-yazi-yazmak
• http://www.abledata.com/abledata_docs/Distance_Perception.htm
• http://www.rofl.to/awesome-mirror-prank
• http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orhan_Boran
• http://www.bu.edu/smec/lite/index.html
• http://nationalgeographic.com.tr/ngkids
• http://www.webexhibits.org/arrowintheeye/index.html
• http://www.johnrausch.com/puzzleWorld/toc.asp?t=_des/he001.htm&m=des/he000.htm
• http://physics.kenyon.edu/EarlyApparatus/Titlepage/Optics.html
• www.dls.ym.edu.tw/neuroscience/chvision.html
• http://www.questacon.edu.au/html/tg_p18.htm
• http://www.questacon.edu.au/html/tg_p20.htm
• http://www.ci.tumwater.wa.us/researchjacobsladder.htm
• http://www.woodcraftarts.com/jacob.htm
• http://www.ci.tumwater.wa.us/researchthaumatrope.htm
• http://www.jamboree.freedom-in-education.co.uk/w’s%20craft%20corner/jacob’s%20ladder.htm
• io.uwinnipeg.ca/…/topology-paper-projects.htm
• www.pbs.org/saf/1105/teaching/teaching3.htm
• discovermagazine.com/2006/may/guide3
• williamcalvin.com/BHM/ch7.htm
• http://www.humboldt1.com/~mobiles/Templates/info.html
• http://www.wikihow.com/Make-a-Fork-and-Spoon-Appear-to-Defy-Gravity
• www.stenmorten.com/English/essays/non-intelli…
• http://www.mcescher.com/
• www.grand-illusions.com
• http://www.moillusions.com/2006/03/dragon-illusion.html
• http://www.nezperce.com/~jimloy/puzz/delusion.htm
• http://www.saatchi-gallery.co.uk/blogon/mtvideobox.php?video_id=78
• http://xahlee.org/PageTwo_dir/more.html
• http://www.mikes-mazes.com/what2.htm
• http://www.encyklopedie.ckrumlov.cz/docs/en/mesto_histor_malirs.xml
• http://www.superliminal.com/upsidedown/NQAS.htm
• http://www.echalk.co.uk/amusements/OpticalIllusions/illusions.htm
• http://www.journalofvision.org/VolumeIndex.aspx
• http://www.richardgregory.org/experiments/index.htm
• http://www.kontexis.de/front_content.php?idart=1067
• http://serdarbayram.blogcu.com/illuzyon-kutuphanesi_1952812.html
• http://www.guidomoretti.it/E_terzavia.htm
• http://illusioncontest.neuralcorrelate.com/index
• http://www.crazybytes.at/fun_illusions/contents.htm
• www.ozelink.com/natures_energies/color1.htm
• http://www.biltek.tubitak.gov.tr/gelisim/psikoloji/algilab.htm
• http://burhandogancay.com/v3_plt/platin.aspx?platinID=198&section=1&lang=TR
• http://www.dogancaymuseum.org/
• http://www.varini.org/
• http://www.muralmosaic.com/index.html
• http://www.colorstereo.com/
• http://www.stereoskopie.com/
• http://www.cizgifilmciler.org/content/view/21/37/
• http://careerchem.com/NAMED/Optical-Illusions.pdf
• http://www.lifesci.sussex.ac.uk/home/George_Mather/Motion/
• http://lb-psychologie.de/projekte/myers__die_zweite/dozenten/galerie/117
• http://www.matheprisma.de/Module/Parkett/index.htm
• http://www.acnr.co.uk/pdfs/volume6issue2/v6i2visual.pdf
• http://www.patrickhughes.co.uk/
• http://www.ivanrival.com/docs/picturepuzzling_2.pdf
• http://tessellations.home.comcast.net/~tessellations/
• http://www.papyromania.nl/PaperWorks/indexGallery.htm
• http://perceptualstuff.org/photoilluscont.html
• http://www.diycalculator.com/sp-cvision.shtml
• http://deputydog.wordpress.com/2007/10/03/optical-illusions-and-architecture/
• http://www.papyromania.nl/PaperWorks/indexGallery.htm



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